History

HIST A202 Historian's Craft
3.00 crs.

This course serves as an introduction to the art and craft of history. Designed for incoming history majors and transfer students, the course will provide an introduction and overview of the important features of the historian’s craft from conceptualizing ideas to research methods, to critical reading and writing, to the philosophy of history, and to the basic concepts of historiography.

HIST A235 Seminar in Global Issues
3.00 crs.

This course is open to all students by invitation who want the challenge of engaging macro questions of the human experience within the context of different moral and political values. The course is limited to 20 students and then only to second-semester freshmen through first-semester seniors. The seminar is intended to prepare Loyola’s most able students for success in scholarship and fellowship competitions.

HIST A317 History of Genocide
3.00 crs.

This course examines the nature of genocide concentrating on episodes of genocide in the twentieth and twenty-first century, and investigating distant and proximate roots of specific episodes in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.  The consequences of specific acts of genocide, responses to genocide and strategies for combating genocide are also considered.

HIST A327 Hitler and Nazi Germany
3.00 crs.

This course traces the development of Hitler through his rise to power to his subordination of Germany to his dictatorship.  It examines the character of the Nazi state, its monopolization of power through terror, its racial agenda, its aggressive ethnic imperialism, and its ultimate defeat as a result of hubristic over-extension.

HIST A400 Historiography
3.00 crs.

This course is a study of the meaning of history through the eyes of philosophers, theologians, and historians; it studies both philosophies of history and the various approaches to historical investigation. Required of all students majoring in history.

HIST A404 Documentary & Oral Histories
3.00 crs.

This class uses the methodology of oral history to explore an aspect of the history of New Orleans through interviews. Students use A/V equipment to preserve their interviews and they use the information they gather to write term papers and produce documentaries.  The focus of this course varies each semester.

HIST A493 Directed Reading Course
3.00 crs.

The course content varies but is keyed to student and faculty interests in relevant professional topics.

HIST A496 Seminar/Workshop
1.00 crs., 3.00 crs.

A seminar is a supervised group of students sharing the results of their research on a common topic. A workshop is a supervised group of students participating in a common effort.

HIST A497 Internship/Practicum
1.00 crs., 3.00 crs.

An internship is supervised practical experience. A practicum is supervised practical application of previously studied theory. Specific intern programs provide practical experience in archival and museum work.

HIST A498 Research Project
1.00 crs., 3.00 crs.

This project focuses on empirical or historical investigation, culminating in a written report.

HIST A499 Independent Study
1.00 crs., 3.00 crs.

Independent work done under professorial supervision. 

HIST Q225 Ideologies and Economics
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course examines how the modern world has been shaped by ideologies and economics. From Classical Liberalism to the Arab Spring, students look at the ideas and economic realities that have forged our world.

HIST Q230 Oppression and Resistance
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This interdisciplinary survey challenges students to critically evaluate the roles that racism, sexism, and prejudice have played in shaping the modern world. Students compare and contrast case studies of slavery, persecution, subjugation, and genocide and explore the violent and nonviolent resistance of marginalized peoples. To achieve a deeper understanding of the broad impact of bigotry and the efficacy of social justice movements, they connect specific struggles to the global narrative.

HIST Q231 Law in Modern America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course, a continuation of HIST Q238 , examines the major developments in American legal history from 1865 through the 20th century.

HIST Q232 American Trials
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course focuses on famous American trials and uses them as a means to examine the broader historical context in which they took place. Particular attention is given to why these trials captured the public’s attention at the time they occurred and why they still have a hold on the popular imagination today.

HIST Q234 Technology, Nature, and the West
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course explores various scholarly explanations for why and how industrialization  first appeared in the West, with particular emphasis placed on role of technology in the utilization of natural resources and its attendant ecological effects.

HIST Q236 Historical Geography
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course examines modern (1400s-present) international history through the lens of geography. It will provide basic information about physical processes that have been important to social phenomena while emphasizing the role of politics and institutions in the formulation of knowledge and space. It is, moreover, intended to help students fulfill state requirements for the Teaching Certificate.

HIST Q238 Law in Early America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This survey course examines the major developments in American legal history from the Colonial period to the Civil War.

HIST Q240 Infectious Disease: Global History
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World 

This course explores the global history of infectious disease as a social, political, biological, and environmental phenomenon. Focusing on a select number of paradigmatic diseases - smallpox, bubonic plague, malaria, syphilis, cholera, influenza, leprosy, HIV/AIDS, and ebola - we look at infectious disease from a variety of geographical, chronological, and methodological purposes.

HIST Q242 A History of New Orleans
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course not only explores the historical forces that have transformed New Orleans into one of the world's most distinctive cities, but also the ways in which the Crescent City has played an important role in shaping the broader historical events of both region and nation. Students emerge from this course with a firm understanding of how diverse factors such as geography, economics, culture, ethnicity, and politics have produced New Orleans as we know it today.

HIST Q245 Louisiana History
3.00 crs.

Knowlege & Values: History II

This course examines the political, economic, and social development of Louisiana from the colonial period to the present.

HIST Q247 Empires of the Modern Pacific
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

Empires of the Pacific incorporates the voices of marginalized and/or non-Western peoples, thus enabling students to become familiar with the relationships between the colonizers and the colonized, broadly construed. The course, firmly rooted in a transnational approach to historical understanding, features examples and scholarship about 19th and 20th century imperialisms in Asia, focusing on the British, Japanese, French, and American Empires in the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

 

HIST Q248 U.S. Military History
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines U.S. military policy from the American Revolution to the Cold War; the causes, events, and effects of major American conflicts; and the role of the military in American society and thought during the past two centuries.

HIST Q250 1960s in US and Europe
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

Key elements of our culture -- its patterns of consumption, its youth culture, and its sexual and social identities -- were forged in the sixties. Some look back with nostalgia on the utopian politics, the counterculture and the mass movements of that period. Others see the 1960s as the beginning of everything wrong with our contemporary society. In this module we examine the transnational protest movements and social trends that made the 1960s a cultural revolution in North America and Europe.

 

HIST Q260 WWI in History and Literature
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II Modern World

This class explores the dramatic military, cultural, political, and social shifts that were marked by the First World War. An overview of the military development forms the basic course structure around which the far more complicated social and political assumptions are accessed. Art, literature, and primary documents are used to focus the discussion and offer insight into the experience of war.

HIST Q262 Comparative Social Movements
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course explores the theories, actors, events and global social movements through the interrogation of specific case studies. Interdisciplinary in approach, the class utilizes monographs, primary sources, art, and film to explore how the masses affected change in the world they live in. Major themes include community and institution building, artistic expression, and resource mobilization.

HIST Q265 Nation & Nationalism
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

In examining the histories of nation and nationalism across time and space, this course challenges students to question attributes of immutability, naturalness, and eternity assigned to culture, religion, gender, state, and law. Using nationalism as an the analytical lens, students interrogate modernity, westernization, and globalization since 1700. The course explores looks layered and contested nature of our collective human pasts to unpack the roots of many contemporary global conflicts through a broad inter-disciplinary framework.

HIST Q267 Queer History and Culture
3.00 crs.

The starting point is that sexuality and gender identity has a history. The module explores the importance of race, class, gender on sexual identities and to emphasize that sexuality not only has a history but multiple histories. Sexual categories whose meanings may seem to be self-evident and unchanging: straight and gay, homosexual and heterosexual, transgender and cisgender, "normal" and "deviant," for example.

HIST Q268 Gender and Nation
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

Since its birth in the late eighteenth century, nation has been imagined and projected in highly gendered language and imagery. This course takes students on a global journey to map this gendering of nation from different world regions in order to understand why and how this gendering of nation happened the way it did, and explore the consequences of it on the lived experiences of people: men, women, and queer group. 

HIST Q270 The American Character
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of those characteristics of American culture that seem to define America as unique among nations. It concentrates on contemporary American values and politics, but will begin with the observations of Franklin and Crevecoeur and include the writings of contemporary journalists, historians, social scientists, novelists, travel writers, and foreign observers.

HIST Q276 African American History to 1865
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a survey of the African-American experience from the African background to the end of the Civil War. It focuses on African-Americans’ quest for the American dream and how they attempted to deal with the problems and challenges posed by enslavement and racism.

HIST Q277 African American History from 1865
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of the African-American experience since the Civil War. Students examine the nature and effects of the changes wrought by the Civil War and Reconstruction. The course addresses the themes of change and continuity in the black experience, the struggles against Jim Crow, the civil rights struggles, and post-civil rights developments.

HIST Q278 African American Women's History
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course will explore the cultural, social and political history of African American women from slavery to the present. Interdisciplinary in approach, we will utilize books, primary sources, art, and film to explore how African American women navigated the intersection of race, class, gender, and sexuality in defining themselves. Major themes will include labor, social movements, community and institution building, violence, and resistance.

HIST Q283 Rise of Global Capitalism
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course is a survey of the growth and spread of world capitalism over the last 500 years, from the earliest global trading companies, through multiple industrial revolutions, to the rise of American multinational corporations and China's recent move toward a market economy. We study capitalism as a historical formation, changing through time and space, and intertwined with other areas of human endeavor as well as examining the history of economic thought from Adam Smith to the present day.

HIST Q285 Genocide in the Modern World
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course examines genocidal episodes and mass crimes against humanity from the beginning of the modern era to the present throughout the world. It investigates distant and proximate roots of specific genocidal episodes in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Americas, and the course and consequences of specific acts of genocide.  It considers responses to genocide and strategies for combating genocide.  This is an online course.

HIST Q286 War in the Modern World
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History II: Modern World

This course examines war in the modern world. It considers the reasons why wars were fought, the nature of the wars and their human, moral, and material costs. Students learn the key developments of major wars and gain an understanding of the changing nature of war and the varieties of war fought in the modern era. Particular attention is paid to causes and consequence of war. This is an online course.

HIST Q305 Medieval Crime and Community
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course explores the interaction between the development of criminal law and social change in the late medieval period.  Classes are organized thematically and focus on a broad range of subjects, from trial by ordeal to sanctuary. Emphasis is placed on the creative ways litigants and jurors manipulated the law courts to their best advantage.

HIST Q306 Middle Ages
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines European social, political, and cultural institutions from the fall of Rome to the 15th century.  Themes include: the evolving Church (monasticism, papal monarchy, medicant orders); medieval institutions (feudalism, monarchy); intellectual change (Scholasticism, vernacular literature); and crisis (Crusades, the Black Death).

HIST Q307 Saints & Demons in Medieval Europe
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

The medieval church played a central role influencing the lives of Western Christians. This course examines the depth of that influence. Particular emphasis is placed on forms of religious expression, the development of ecclesiastical organization and hierarchy, the role of the church in everyday life, canon law, and lay involvement in the church.

HIST Q308 Age of Renaissance
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of the social, political, economic, and intellectual developments of the Renaissance. Shifting attitudes mark a transition from the medieval to the early modern world and prepare the way for the upheavals of the Age of Reformation.

HIST Q310 Age of Reformation
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines the shift in religious sensibilities in light of new economic, intellectual, and political developments, and explores the unique responses of Protestant and Catholic reformations.

HIST Q321 Modern Europe 1815 — 1914
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course covers European History from the Congress of Vienna to the outbreak of World War I. Some of the topics covered include Revolution and Reaction; the Industrial Revolution; German and Italian Unification; the quest for colonies and empire; and the roots of World War I and the Russian Revolution.

HIST Q322 Modern Europe 1914 — 1945
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course surveys European history from the First World War to the end of the Second World War. In addition to the causes and results of the two wars, some of the topics covered include the Treaty of Versailles; the Russian Revolution and Stalinism; Fascism and Nazism; and the Holocaust.

HIST Q323 Modern Europe 1945 — Present
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines Europe from the end of World War II until the present. Some of the topics covered include the Origins and Course of the Cold War; the Transformation of Britain and France; the Resurgence of Germany; The European Common Market and the European Union; the collapse of Communism and of the Soviet Union; and the wars of Yugoslavian Secession.

HIST Q330 American Beginnings
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course explores the establishment of colonies in North America. Economic, political, social, and intellectual developments from prehistory to the end of the Seven Years’ War (1763) are discussed.

HIST Q332 Revolutionary America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course considers the impact of revolutionary change in North America from the time of the Revolution to the end of the War of 1812. The course explores the economic, political, social, and intellectual questions facing Americans from the beginnings of the drive to Independence through the formative years of nationhood.

HIST Q336 History of the Old South
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course discusses the origins and evolution of the Old South as a distinctive region and section from its colonization through the collapse of the Confederacy.

HIST Q337 The New South
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is an investigation of the history of the New South. The course ponders the definition of "New South," the New South Creed, and development of the South as a distinctive region from the collapse of the Confederacy to the Information Age.

HIST Q338 Civil War and Reconstruction
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course covers 1845 — 1877 through examination of the forces leading to sectional conflict and to reestablishment of the Union.

HIST Q340 U.S.: Gilded and Progressive Eras
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of America’s industrial age and emergence as a world power in the period 1877 — 1914. Emphasis, too, is on the reaction and reform which these changes brought about, e.g., the decline of laissez faire thought and the genteel tradition, and the rise of the Populist and Progressive movements.

HIST Q342 U.S.: The ’20s and ’30s
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of America from 1914 to 1941; from the peak of optimism and the Progressive Movement to disillusionment and the brink of a second world war; from incredible prosperity to more incredible depression. Emphasis is on the social, political, and intellectual responses to the period’s tremendous economic, cultural, and technological changes.

HIST Q343 U.S.: WWII to Present
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of America from 1941 to the present, including WWII, the Cold War, the hot wars of Korea and Vietnam, and the increasingly active foreign policy of the period. At home, it includes the problems of adjustment to the postwar world and to unprecedented affluence–in general to the vast changes of the past five decades.

HIST Q345 A History of Food in America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course encourages students to broadly consider the historical consequence of food through diverse methodologies and inclusive modes of expression. Reading material, classroom discussion, and lecture encourage an expansive approach to research methodology and interpretation while emphasizing systematic analytical approaches to history.

HIST Q349 Africa to 1880
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a survey of the history of Africa from the earliest times. It examines the evolution of African societies and states and interactions between Africans and the outside world.

HIST Q350 Africa 1880 to Present
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course covers the interaction of Africa with the West. It also examines the processes and structures of colonialism, African reactions to colonialism, nationalist movements, and the economic and political structures of independent African states.

HIST Q352 Women in African History
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines women in African history from ancient times to the present, focusing on how religious practices, colonialism, and social class have impacted their lives.  Students examine the construction of gender, social systems, reproduction, women’s exercise of power, and the attempt to control of the bodies of women and girls.

HIST Q357 Modern Iran
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course examines the making of modern Iran from the inception of the Qajar dynasty (1796) to the present, tracing the development of the state structure from an ethno-tribal monarchy to a modern theocratic state through internal and international wars, civil wars, coups, revolutions, and reforms. The Islamization of the Iranian political and cultural sphere during and in the aftermath of the 1979 revolution is explored as a puzzle rather than the expected logical development of Iranian political processes. Critical questions are posed about Iranian history.

HIST Q381 English History to 1688
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is a study of political, social, cultural, and religious developments from the Roman Conquest to the Revolution of 1688.  Themes include: England’s mixed cultural heritage, emergence of Parliament, development of law, interaction with England’s neighbors and invaders, religious transformation, and proto-nationalism.

HIST Q382 English History, 1688 to Present
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History II

This course is an analysis of the transformation of English society from 18th-century aristocratic dominance and the rise of the middle classes in the 19th century to the emergence of working-class power and the establishment of the welfare state in the 20th century. The changing role of England as a world power is also examined.

HIST T121 First-Year Seminar
3.00 crs.

Foundation Courses: First-Year Seminar

All first-year students take a 3-credit First-Year Seminar (FYS) during their first semester as part of the Loyola Core. First-Year Seminars at Loyola are small, discussion-based seminars that introduce new college students to academic inquiry at the university level by investigating a relevant topic. Specially-trained faculty lead these seminars in a way that instills in students the academic skills necessary to become successful Loyola students. Course titles may differ from section to section based on the instructor's focus for the course.

HIST T122 Global History I
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History I

The course chronicles the story of humanity from its origins to 1700. Classes explore the histories, cultures, and folkways of the peoples of the world through assignments focused on the fundamental critical thinking skills required of a novice student in an entry-level college history course: reading and summarizing historical texts (both primary and secondary), gathering and assessing evidence, and the preliminary aspects of writing and discussing history.

HIST T124 Global History II
3.00 crs.

Knowledge-Values Courses: History I

The course chronicles the story of humanity from 1500 to the near present. Classes explore the histories, cultures, and folkways of the peoples of the world through assignments focused on the fundamental critical thinking skills required of a novice student in an entry-level college history course: reading and summarizing historical texts (both primary and secondary), gathering and assessing evidence, and the preliminary aspects of writing and discussing history.

HIST T200 U.S. History to 1865
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course covers the exploration, the colonial experience, independence, the new republic, the spread of both democracy and slavery, expansion, abolitionism, and the Civil War. The emphasis of the course is not only political but on the economic, social, and intellectual and cultural aspects of U.S. history as well.

HIST T201 U.S. History from 1865
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course discusses the Reconstruction era, the Gilded Age, imperialism, progressivism, WWI, the ’20s, the New Deal, WWII, the Cold War, the new frontiers, the Great Society, and contemporary America. The emphasis of the course is not only political but on the economic, social, intellectual, and cultural aspects of U.S. history as well.

HIST T210 Latin America's Global Reach
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course compares and contrasts the Old and New World and how their interaction brought us to the global village we live in today.  This course thus examines how and why Europeans moved into the New World, seeking to build empires of trade, commerce, and exploitation.

HIST T220 Latin America I
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course is a survey of pre-Columbian civilizations; European discovery and conquest; structure and problems of empire in Spanish and Portuguese America; the influence of the church; and the struggle for independence.

HIST T221 Modern Latin America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course is a socio-economic, cultural, and political analysis of Latin American Republics since 1820. Emphasis is on the development of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Topics include problems and prospects, clash between the traditional and the modern, conflicts between church and state, and inter-American relations.

HIST T222 Autobiography as History
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course gives students a firm grasp of autobiography as a distinct literary genre. The historical development of autobiography is presented and the distinctions are drawn between autobiography, memoirs, literary portraiture, and personal adventure stories. The bulk of the course treats the historical circumstances in which each autobiography was written and the contents of the individual autobiographies themselves. Attention is given to ancient, medieval, and modern autobiographies.

HIST T232 Africa and Its Diasporas
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values Courses: History I

This course explores the history of African Diasporas around the globe from the time of the Atlantic trade to the present. The course is global in scope, focusing not only African diaspora communities in the Americas, but also in the Indian Ocean world, in Europe and within the continent of Africa itself.  Themes include community building and resistance under slavery, diasporic religious expression, black nationalism and socialism, anti-colonialism, and modern diasporas.

HIST T235 Roman and Viking Invasions
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course seeks to understand the development of cultural identity, royal power and law in Britain through the medium of invasion. By examining the invasions of the cosmopolitan Romans, the Germanic Saxons and the Scandinavian Vikings, students will seek to understand how various global influences shaped British identity, encouraged the expansion of royal authority, and sparked the formation of modern jurisprudence in medieval Britain.

 

HIST T238 Christian Late Antiquity
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

Christianity in Europe and the Levant as it emerged in Late Antiquity was forged in a period where, from the encounter and clash of vastly disparate cultures and beliefs, new artistic and intellectual forms emerged from the old and new modes of thinking and living took hold in a world that managed to successfully synthesize innovation and tradition at all levels of existence.  The study of Christianity in Late Antiquity, then, is the study of a social revolution in the making. 

HIST T240 Women in The Middle Ages
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This class explores changes in women’s rights and roles in medieval society. Special emphasis is placed on the gap between prescription and reality, women’s contributions to medieval society, ideas and attitudes about women, and developments at the end of the medieval period to create a society tolerant of witchcraft persecutions.

HIST T254 Palestinians & Israelis
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This history course addresses the ongoing conflict between Palestinians and Israelis by exploring its origins in the history of Zionism and the formation of Palestinian national identity since the nineteenth century, inviting course participants to weigh the possibilities for peace, dignity, freedom, and security not only for Palestinians and Israelis, but also for the region and the world.

HIST T256 The Crusades
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values Courses: History I

Muslim fundamentalists today see attacks on Westerners as a continuation of the Wars of the Cross; Westerners know little about them and feel no sense of continuity.  These attitudes are a legacy of the medieval period.  For Europe, the Crusades were a positive experience, encouraging scholarship, economic expansion, and Christian solidarity.  For Muslims, it hastened the fragmentation of an empire. A better understanding of the Crusades illuminates current relations with the Middle East.

HIST T258 Medicine in the Medieval West
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values Courses: History I

This course explores the history of medical theory and practice, focusing most closely on the medieval era (i.e. 400-1500), but taking into good account also the Greek and Roman foundations of medical theory that prevail in Western and Middle Eastern society until the Enlightenment.  The history is explored through a variety of lenses:  clinical, ethical, religious and social.  

HIST T266 Quest for Empire in Latin America
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course looks at both the unifying & divisive forces of empire in Latin America in the Modern Period (1492-2016). Starting with the discovery of the New World and the Spanish Empire as a model for what evolved and came later and then ending with the two paradigms of the supposed universalism of capitalism and democracy, the course seeks to illuminate the underlying issues and structural forces down to the present day as a way to see what is in store for Latin America culture in the future.

HIST T270 Latin West, Orthodox East
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

The greatest split of all has been that between East and West, a split exemplified by the emergence of two distinct Christian traditions: Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.  Beginning with the roots of the divergence in apostolic times and taking the story right up to the Council of Florence in the fifteenth century, this course explores the factors--theological, personal, geo-political and cultural--that caused the development of progressively severe and irreversible fractures with the Church.  The result was the creation of two distinct "mother churches," which themselves have in turn generated the entire panoply of sects East and West, of which the modern spectrum of Christianity is comprised.  Lastly, this course seeks to examine the quest for world-wide ecumenical dialogue, despite divisions of the past, which continues up to the present day.

HIST T271 Money as Meaning
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course proceeds from the proposition that money is a kind of meaning, and focuses on the relationship between money and other forms of communication, such as writing and printing. It examines the changing roles of various kinds of money across time, from the earliest stone-age exchange systems through the birth of capitalism in the early modern period, and explores the various conceptions of money across cultures. Through the survey of the history of monies, students also gain familiarity with the broad outlines of global history to 1650. The course is designed to be of use to students in all majors and degree programs, and to contribute to the goals of a liberal arts education.

HIST T288 Middle East & Islam, 600-1650
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course traces the major developments in the Middle East from the 7th to the 16th centuries. This period witnessed the transition to Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and its spread throughout the wider Middle East. Accordingly, students study how Muslims shaped a unified civilization and interacted with non-Muslim communities and polities.

HIST T289 Middle East 1600 to Present
3.00 crs.

Knowledge & Values: History I

This course is a continuation of HIST T288. It explores the main patterns and events that shaped the modern Middle East from the 16th century to the present, paying particular attention to the expansion of empire, the transformation of economies and institutions, changing gender relations, and conflicts over territory.